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Dietary Supplement Ingredients and Raw Materials


NaturPro Scientific are experts in dietary supplement bulk raw materials and ingredients, especially botanicals and herbs.  We know how botanical and medicinal plants are grown, harvested, aggregated, processed, extracted and tested.

We are specialists in qualifying, testing and sourcing herbal dietary ingredients and botanical raw materials used in supplements, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.


Quick Facts on Bulk Supplement Ingredient Formats, Quality, Testing 

  1. Most raw materials are available as whole, cut, powdered or powdered extract. We recommend and specialize in fully standardized botanical extracts with full supply chain traceability and transparency, meeting the strictest global requirements.
  2. For non-botanicals, we suggest working directly with the manufacturer, and not with a distributor. All certificates of analysis should list the manufacturer’s name and the address of the manufacturing facility where the product was produced, or be accompanied by traceability documentation.
  3. Many raw materials are available as Certified Organic. Most products are naturally non-GMO.
  4. All materials may be tested at dedicated laboratories for the presence and amount of nutrients, potency, microbiology and pathogens, heavy metals, pathogens, 500+ pesticides, 100+ volatile organic compounds and solvents, food allergens and gluten, and mycotoxins.
  5. The testing plan is based on the material specification, which is typically based on the regulatory requirements of the country where the materials will be sold.
  6. We also recognize and actively seek out materials meeting various benchmarked quality standards, such as U.S. 21 CFR 111, USP <561> Articles of Botanical Origin and official pharmacopeial monographs, WHO Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP), USDA Good Agricultural Practices, Fairtrade,  U.N. Forum on Sustainability Standards.

Dietary Supplement Ingredients and Raw Materials 

Here is a partial list of ingredients that we are able to qualify and develop for our clients:

Abies webbiana  (Talispatra)

Abrus precatorius (Rati Gunj)

Acacia arabica (Nilotica)

Acerola Cherry

Achyranthes aspera Seed (Apamarg)

Adhatoda vasica Leaf (Vasa, Adulsa)

Aegle marmelos Fruit (Bilva, Bel)

Aesculus hippocastanum L.

Aglaia roxburghiana Fruit (Priyangu)

Ajmud (Carum roxburgianum)

Allium sativum L.

Aloe ferox Miller

Aloe Gel (Ghrit Kumari)

Aloe vera

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Amalaki, Amla Fruit (Emblica officinalis)

Ambrette Seed (Latakasturi, Muskdana)

Amla Fruit Extract (Phyllanthus emblica)

Amorphophalms konjac

Andrographis Herb (Bhunimba, Kalmegh) Papda)

Andrographis paniculata

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels

Annatto (Shinduri)

Apple

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.

Argemone mexicana Herb (Swarnakshiri)

Argyreia nervosa Seed (Vriddhadaru)

Aristolochia indica Root (Pushkarmul)

Arjun Bark (Terminalia arjuna)

Arrowroot

Artemisia annua L.

Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Ashok Bark (Saraca indica)

Ashwagandha Root (Withania somnifera)

Asparagus racemosus Root (Shatavari)

Astaxanthin

Asteracantha longifolia Seed (Talimakhana)

Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.)Bge

Atibala Root (Abutilon indicum)

Azadiracta indica Bark (Neem)

Azadiracta indica Leaf (Neem)

B-3 Niacinamide USP

Bacopa monnieri Herb (Brahmi)

Bala Root (Sida cordifolia)

Baliospermum montanum (Danti)

Bamboo Manna (Vansrochan)

Barberry Stem Bark

Barley Grass (Yava)

Basil Leaf

Basil Seed (Sabja, Tukmaria)

Basil, Camphor (Karpur Tulsi)

Bauhinia tomentosa Bark (Kanchanar)

Beet Root

Berberis aristata Stem (Daru Haridra/Haldi)

Bergenia ligulata (Pashan Bheda)

Bhringraja Herb (Eclipta alba)

Bhumyamalaki Herb (Phyllanthus amarus)

Bhunimba Herb (Andrographis paniculata)

Bibhitaki, Baheda Fruit (Terminalia bellerica)

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Fruit

Bilva, Bel Fruit (Aegle marmelos)

Biotin

Bishops Weed Seed (Ammi majus)

Bitter melon (Karvellak, Karela)

Black Cohosh

Blackberry

Blueberry

Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava)

Bombax malabaricum (Mochras)

Borago officinalis L. (Borage)

Boswellia serrata (Frankincense, Shallaki)

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri)

Bridelia retusa (Asana)

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Flower Powder

Broccoli Seed Ext BSPE-13-25

Bromelain

Bupleurum Root

Butea monosperma Bark (Palash)

Butea monosperma Flower (Palash)

Buxus sinica(Rehd.et Wils.)Cheng

Caesalpinia bonducella Seed (Lata Karanj)

Caesalpinia sappan (Patang, Sappan wood)

Calamus Root (Vacha, Bach)

Calendula Petals

Calotropis gigantea Root (Mandar, Aak)

Camellia sinensis (L.) O.Kuntze (Green Tea)

Camphor

Camptotheca acuminata

Cane Sugar

Capsicum annuum L.

Cassia absus (Chakshu)

Cassia angustifolia Vahi

Cassia fistula Fruit Pulp (Arghvadh, Bahava)

Cassia nomame(sibe.)L.Kitagawa

Cassia tora (Chakramard)

Catechu Bark (Khadir, Khair)

Cayenne Pepper Powder

Cedrus deodar Wood (Devdaru)

Celastrus paniculatus Fruit (Jyotismati)

Celery Seed (Apium graveolens, Ajmud)

Centella asiatica (Gotu kola) aerials

Chamomile Herb

Chamomilla recutita(L.)Rausch

Chaste Tree Berry

Chen Pi Extract

Chickweed (Stellaria Media Herb) Extract

Chlorophytum borivilium Root (Safed Musli)

Choline Bitartrate

Chrysin

Cimicifuga foetida L.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (True or Ceylon cinnamon) bark

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) bark

Cinnamon Powder Low Oil

Cissampelos pareira (Patha)

Cissus quadrangularis Herb (Ashthisandhar)

Citric Acid Anhydrous USP/FCC

Citrullus colocynthis Fruit (Indravaruni) Citrus anrantium L.

Citrus aurantium L.

Citrus Bioflavonoids

Citrus Bioflavonoids Extract

Citrus paradisi Macfadyen

Clerodendron serratum Root (Bharangi)

Clitoria ternatea Herb (Aparajita)

Cnidium monnieri L.

Coenzyme Q10

Cola nitida(Vent.) Schott et Endl

Coleus barbatus Benth

Coleus forskohlii Root (Pashanbheda)

Commiphora mukul Resin (Guggul)

Commiphora myrrah Resin (Raktabol)

Convolvulus pluricaulis Herb (Shankhpushpi)

Coptis Chinensis Extract

Cordyceps sinensis Extract

Costus speciosus (Kustha)

Country Mallow, Indian Root (Atibala)

Cranberry Fruit Powder

Crataegus pinnatifida

Crataeva nurvala Wood (Vaiverna)

Croscarmellose Sodium

Curculigo orchioides Root (Musli)

Curcuma amada Root (Amra Haridra, Amba Haldi)

Curcuma aromatica (Van Haridra)

Curcuma zedoaria (Karchura)

Curcumin 95% Powder

Curry (Murraya koenigii) Leaf

Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12 1%)

Cyanocobalamin 0.1%, Vit B12

Cynara scolymus L

Cynodon dactylon (Durva)

Cyperus rotundus Root (Musta, Nagarmotha)

Datura metel Seed (Dhoorta, Dhatura)

Desmodium gangeticum Root (Shaliparni)

Dioscorea bulbifera Tuber (Varahi Kand)

D-Limonene

Dong Quai Extract

Echinacea purpurea Herb Extract

Eclipta alba Herb (Bhringraja)

Eleutherococcus Senticosus Root Extract

Embelia ribes Seed (Vidang)

Emblica officinalis Fruit (Amalaki, Amla)

Epimedium brevicorn

Equisetum arvense L.

Eucalyptus citridora Leaf (Nilgiri)

Euphorbia nerifolia Herb (Sudha)

Evodia rutaecarpa(Juss.)Benth

Evolvulus alsinoides Herb (Shankhpushpi)

Feronia limonia (Wood apple, Kapittha, Kaith)

Ficus benghalensis Bark (Banyan, Vata, Vad)

Ficus benghalensis Shoot (Vatankur)

Ficus racemosa Bark (Udumbara, Gular)

Ficus religiosa Bark (Ashwatha, Peepal)

Flax Seed Extract

Flaxseed Lignans Powder

Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel)

Folic Acid 10%

Folium Artemisiae Argyi

Fructose DC

Fucus vesiculosus L.

Fumaria parviflora Seed (Yavan Parpat, Pitta Papda)

Galangal (Kulinjan)

Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.)Karst

Garcinia cambogia Fruit Rind (Vrikshamla)

Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen)

Gardenia gummifera (Nadihingu)

Gardenia jasminoides Ellis

Ginger Extract 5%

Ginger Root Powder

Ginkgo Biloba 24% Extract

Gloriosa superba Seed (Langli, Kalihari)

Glucosamine HCl (non-shellfish)

Glycine max(L.)Merr

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Gmelina arborea Root (Gambhari, Shivan)

Gokshur Fruit (Tribulus terrestris)

Gokshur Herb (Tribulus terrestris)

Gotu Kola Herb (Mandukparni, Brahmi) Pumpkin Seed

Grape (Citis vinifera) Seed

Green Coffee (Coffea arabica) Bean

Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaf Ext

Green Tea 40% Decaffeinated Water Extracted

Green Tea PE Decaffeinated 40% EGCG

Griffonia Simplicifolia

Guar Gum

Guduchi, Amrita Herb (Tinospora cordifolia)

Guggul Resin (Commiphora mukul)

Gum arabic (Acacia arabica, A. nilotica)

Gymnema Leaf (Madhunashini, Shardunika, Gudmar)

Gymnema sylvestre

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

Hamamelis mollis Oliver

Haritaki, Harde (Terminalia chebula)

Harpagophytum procumbens DC

Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Ext 5.5 to 1

Hedychium spicatum Root (Sati, Kapur Kachri)

Helicteres isora Fruit (Avartini)

Hemidismus inducus (Anantmul)

Hemsleya amabilis Diels

Hemp Protein

Hemp Seed Oil

Hemp Extract (Cannabidiol, CBD)

Henna Leaf (Madayantika, Mehandi)

Herpestis moniera Herb (Brahmi)

Hesperidin

Hibiscus Flower (Japa, Jaswand) Sage

Hippophae rhamnoides L.

Holarrhena antidysenterica Bark (Kutaj)

Holy Basil Leaf (Tulsi)

Honey

Hops Extract Powder

Hops Powder

Horse Chestnut Extract  20%

Horsetail Shavegrass

Humulus lupulus L.

Huperzia serrata (Huperzine-A)

Hydrocotyle asiatica Herb (Mandukparni)

Hypericum perforatum L.

Indian Goosebery Fruit (Amalaki, Amla)

Indigo Leaf (Neelini, Neel)

Indole-3-Carbinol

Inositol

Ipomoea digitata Tuber (Kshri Vidari)

Japanese Knotweed Extract

Jasmine Flower (Mallika)

Jatamansi Root (Nardostachys jatamansi)

Jatropha curcas

Jujube Seed

Kanchanar Bark (Bauhinia tomentosa)

Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

Kutki Root (Picrorhiza kurroa)

Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers

Laminaria japonica Arsch

L-Arginine

Lavandula pedunculata L.

L-Carnitine Fumarate

L-Citrulline

L-Cysteine

Lemon Bioflavonoid Complex

Lemon Peel

Lemongrass

Lentinus edodes (Berk.)sing

Lepidium sativum Seed

Leptadenia reticulata (Jivanti)

L-Glutamine

Licorice Extract, Deglycyrrhizinated (Glycyrrhiza Glabra)

Linum usitatissimum L.

Lllicium verum Hook.f

Lotus (Padam, Neel Kamal)

L-Selenomethionine

Lycium barbarum L. (Goji berry)

Maca root

Madder, Indian Root (Manjistha)

Madhuca india (Madhuka)

Magnesium Carbonate

Magnesium Gluconate

Magnesium Lactate

Magnolia Bark

Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils

 

Manganese Gluconate

Marigold Flower (Zendu)

Marjoram

Marshmallow Root Ext 4:1

Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm)

Mentha haplocalyx Briq

Mesua ferra Stamen (Nagkeshara)

Mexican Poppy Herb (Argemon mexicana)

Milk Thistle Seed Extract 80% silymarin

Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon)

Moringa oleifera (Shigru, Sahijan)

Motherwort Powder Extract  6.5:1

Mucuna pruriens

N-Acetyl L-Cysteine

Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.

Neem

Nettle Root

Niacin

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Fruit

Nyctanthes arbortristis Leaf (Parijat, Harsingar)

Oenothera erythrosepala Borb

Olive Leaf Extract

Opuntia dillenii

Orange Peel

Orange Powder

Oregano

Oregon Grape Root Extract 4:1

Oroxylum indicum Root (Shyonak, Tetu)

Oroxylum indicum(L.)Vent

Orris, Indian Root (Pushkarmula)

Panax Ginseng Extract

Papaya Leaf

Parsley

Passion Flower Ext

Patchouli Leaf

Pepper, Long Fruit (Pippali)

Pepper, Long Root (Pippali)

Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt

Perilla Seed Extract

Periwinkle Herb (Sadaphuli)

Phellodendron amurense (Berberine HCl)

Phellodendron amurense Rup

Phosphatyl Serine 30%

Phyllanthus amarus Herb (Bhumyamalaki)

Phyllanthus emblica Fruit (Amalaki, Amla)

Picrorhiza kurroa Root (Katuka, Kutki)

Picrorhiza kurroa Root Extract

Pinus massoniana Lamb

Pinus massoniana Lamb

Piper betle Leaf (Nagvalli, Paan)

Piper Methysticum

Piper nigrum L.

Pistacia integerrima (Karkatshringi)

Plantain Flour

Pluchea lanceolata Root (Rasna)

Plumbago zeylanica Root (Chitrak)

Polygonum cuspidatum Root Extract 50%

Pomegranate Fruit Extract

Pomegranate Flower

Pongamia pinnata (Karanj)

Poppy Seed (Post Dana)

Potassium Sulfate

Potassium bicarbonate

Pregelatinized Starch

Premna integrifolia Root (Agnimantha)

Prune Skin Extract

Psoralea corylifolia Seed (Bakuchi, Bavchi)

Psyllium Husk (Isaphgula, Isabgol)

Pterocarpus marsupium Wood (Vijaysar)

Pueraria lobata (Willd.)

Pueraria Root Extract 40% Isoflavones

Pueraria tuberose Tuber (Vidari)

Pumpkin Seed Powder – Steam Treated

Punarnava Root (Boerhavia diffusa)

Punica granatum L.

Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Quercetin Anhydrous Granular

Quercetin Anhydrous Powder GRAS

Quercetin Dihydrate

Quercetin Dihydrate Powder

Quercus infectoria (Mayaphal, Majuphal)

Randia dumetorum (Madanphal)

Raspberry Fruit Powder

Rauwolfia serpentine Root (Sarpagandha)

Red Clover Extract

Red Yeast Rice

Rhamnus purshiana

Rhodiola rosea

Rhus succedanea (Karkatshringi)

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Rice Protein Hydrolysate

Rodiola Rosea 5%

Rose Petal (Shatpatri, Gulab)

Rosemary Ext 95%

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Rublaceae.Corynant.Yohimbine

Rubus chingli Hu

Rue Herb (Ruta graveolens)

Ruscus aculeatus L.

Rutin

Safed Musli Root (Chlorophytum borivilium)

Safflower Seed

Salacia chinesis (Saptarangi)

Salix alba L.

Salvia Extract, 1% Dan Shen

Salvia Sclare L.

Sambucus williamsii Hance

Sappan Wood (Patang)

Saraca indica Bark (Ashok)

Sarperia (Rauwolfia serpentina)

Sarsaparilla, Indian (Anantmul)

Saw Palmetto Ext 45%

Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill

Scindapsus officinalis (Gajpippli)

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)

Selenium

Semecarpus anacardinum Nut (Bhallatak)

Senna Leaf (Markandika, Sanai)

Serenoa repens (Saw palmetto)

Sesame Seed (Til)

Sesamum indicum L.

Shankhpushpi Herb (Convolvulus pluricaulis)

Shatavari Root (Asparagus racemosus)

Sheabutter officinalis

Shorea robusta (Raal)

Sida cordifolia Root (Bala)

Sida rhombifolia Root (Mahabala)

Silybum marianum(L.)gaertn

Sisymbrium officinale L.

Skullcap Root Extract

Soap Nut (Arishtak, Reetha)

Sodium Ascorbate Granular 99%

Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin

Solanum indicum Root (Brihati)

Solanum lycopersicum L

Solanum nigrum Root (Kakmachi)

Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit (Kantakari)

Sophora alopecuroides L.

Sophora japonica L.

Sophora subprostrata

Sorbus aucuparia L.

Soy Isoflavones

Spent Hops (Polyphenol Rich Hops Pellets)

Sphaeranthus indicus Herb (Mundi)

Spikenard, Indian Root (Jatamansi)

Spilanthes acmella Root (Akarkarbha)

Spirulina

St John’s Wort

Stereospermum suaveolens Root (Patala)

Stevia Leaf Extract (Rebaudioside A)

Strychnos potatorum (Nirmali)

Sunflower

Symplocos racemosus Stem (Lodhra)

Syzygium cumini Seed (Jambu, Jamun)

Tagetes erecta L. (Marigold)

Tamarind Fruit

Tamarindus indica L.

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)

Taxus baccata L

Tea, Black

Terminalia arjuna Bark (Arjuna)

Terminalia bellerica Fruit (Bibhitaki, Baheda)

Terminalia chebula Fruit (Haritaki, Harde)

Thiamine Hydrochloride

Thyme

Thymus mongolicus Ronn

Tinospora cordifolia Stem (Guduchi, Amrita, Galo)

Trachycarpus fortunei(Hook.)H.Wendl)

Tribulus terrestris Fruit (Gokshur, Gokhru)

Trichosanthes cucumerina Root (Patol)

Trifolium pratense L.

Tulsi Leaf (Ocimum sanctum)

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Root Extract

Turmeric Root Powder

Vaccinium myrtillus L.

Valerian Root ext 0.8%

Valeriana wallichi Root (Sugandha bala, Tagar)

Vanadium Citrate 0.5%

Vanilla Bean

Vasa, Adulsa Leaf (Adhatoda vasica)

Viola odorata Leaf (Banafsa)

Vitex negundo Herb (Nirgundi)

Vitex trifolia L.

Vitis vinifera L.

Voacango africana Stapf

Watercress Herb Ext. 4:1 Steam Treated (non irradiated)

Wheat Grass

White Willow Bark 15%

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha)

Wormwood Plant Ext 5%, 8:1

Xylitol (Foods)

Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim

Zinc Chelate (Tasteless) 10%

Zinc Citrate 32%

Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) root

Ziziphus jujube

Here are ingredient of concern listed on FDA’s website:

Dietary Supplement Testing and Analysis: Quality Control

by NaturPro in Uncategorized Comments: 0

Dietary Supplement Testing and Analysis: Quality Control

Dietary supplements are subject to FDA requirements for good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and quality control in the United States. cGMP require specifications for each ingredient and finished dietary supplement. The specifications list parameters for identity, purity, potency and other requirements for regulatory compliance. Each parameter on the specification must be tested with a scientifically valid method.

NaturPro Scientific, as an UnLab, partners with expert analytical laboratories to conduct specific testing on dietary supplements. Testing typically includes:

  • Physical characteristics (visual, color, odor, taste, density, mesh size)
  • Identity (matching an ingredient in a pass/fail fashion to a particular species of botanical or herb, or a chemical purity test)
  • Potency (concentration of active or marker compounds)
  • Purity (absence of impurities such as moisture, microbiology, pathogens, heavy metals, residual solvents, pesticides, mycotoxins)

The following are analytical principles or instruments that may be used for dietary supplement testing:

  • Karl Fischer
  • Ro-tap and particle size analysis
  • Titration
  • Gravimetry
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC or HP-TLC)
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
  • Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID)
  • Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS of GC-MS-MS)
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
  • Total Aerobic Plate Count
  • Pathogens (Salmonella, E. Coli, Staph)

The following is a list of documentation and regulations requiring testing under cGMPs:

  • Documentation of the specifications established (21 CFR 111.95(b)(1))
  • Documentation of your qualification of a supplier for the purpose of relying on the supplier’s certificate of analysis (21 CFR 111.95(b)(2))
  • Documentation for why meeting in-process specifications, in combination with meeting component specifications, helps ensure that the dietary supplement meets the specifications for identity, purity, strength, and composition; and for limits on those types of contamination that may adulterate or may lead to adulteration of the finished batch of the dietary supplement (21 CFR 111.95(b)(3))
  • Documentation for why the results of appropriate tests or examinations for the product specifications that you selected for testing ensure that the dietary supplement meets all product specifications (21 CFR 111.95(b)(4))
  • Documentation for why any component and in-process testing, examination, or monitoring, and any other information, will ensure that a product specification that is exempted under 21 CFR 111.75(d) is met without verification through periodic testing of the finished batch, including documentation that the selected specifications tested or examined under 21 CFR 111.75 (c)(1) are not able to verify that the production and process control system is producing a dietary supplement that meets the exempted product specification and there is no scientifically valid method for testing or examining such exempted product specification at the finished batch stage (21 CFR 111.95(b)(5))

There are a number of sources of information for developing specifications and test methods for analysis of dietary supplements. The below is a partial list of references and resources:

  1. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, https://dietarysupplementdatabase.usda.nih.gov/
  2. Dietary Supplement Label Database, https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/DietarySupplements-HealthProfessional/
  3. Dietary supplement laboratory quality assurance program: the first five exercises. Phillips MM, Rimmer CA, Wood LJ, Lippa KA, Sharpless KE, Duewer DL, Sander LC, Betz JM.  J AOAC Int 2011;94:803-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3173719/
  4. Heavy metals: analysis and limits in herbal dietary supplements, http://www.naturalhealthresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/09_1214_AHPA_Heavy-Metals-White-Paper-Revised.pdf
  5. Pesticide Analytical Manual, Vol I, FDA. Source: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodScienceResearch/ucm113702.pdf
  6. Pesticide Analytical Manual, Vol II, FDA. Source: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodScienceResearch/ucm113721.pdf
  7. Quality assurance of cultivated and gathered medicinal plants. Mathe and Mathe, Source: http://www.mtk.nyme.hu/fileadmin/user_upload/kornyezet/Mathe/Quality_assurance.pdf
  8. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials (1998) World Health Organization
  9. Recommendations for microbial limits in herbal products, American Herbal Products Association, http://www.ahpa.org/Portals/0/PDFs/Policies/14_0206_AHPA_micro_limits_comparisons.pdf
  10. Standardization of herbal medicines – A review. Kunle O.F. et al, (2012) Int. J Biodiv and Conserv. 4(3) 101-112. Source: http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380017716_Kunle%20et%20al.pdf
  11. USP Food Fraud Mitigation Guidance, http://www.usp.org/food/food-fraud-mitigation-guidance

 

Nootropic Supplement Product Development


Development of nootropic supplements as products supporting brain and cognitive health requires a focus on efficacy, quality and purity. Regulatory compliance and safety of ingredients for nootropics are key factors in developing formulas and products.

Facts on Nootropic Supplement Product Development:

  1. NaturPro Scientific assists in the development, sourcing, testing and production of nootropic ingredients and products.
  2. Focus, attention, memory and alertness are all clinical endpoints measured for nootropics.
  3. Nootropics may come in the form of capsules, powders, beverages, tea bags, tablets, liquids and even foods.
  4. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed nootropics.
  5. Here’s an example of a proprietary Nootropic Tea Formula or NooTea.

What are Nootropics?

From Wikipedia:

Nootropics (pronunciation: /n.əˈtrɒpks/ noh-ə-trop-iks)—also called smart drugs or cognitive enhancers—are drugs, supplements, or other substances that improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.[1][2] The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others.[1][3][4] Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly.[5]

The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea,[6][7] from the Greek words νους (nous), or “mind”, and τρέπειν (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.[8]

Nootropic Safety and Side Effects

Many ingredients used in nootropic supplements are synthetic substances not found in nature or our food supply. These may be considered unapproved drugs. Central nervous system stimulants and plant alkaloids are also areas of concern for safety, due to their impact on the brain. Many CNS stimulants are considered toxic to the liver and other organs. It is essential that nootropic ingredients are supported by safety studies and a long history of human use, in addition to GRAS (generally recognized as safe) or other suitable safety assessments as determined by regulations.

From Wikipedia: “The main concern with pharmaceutical drugs is adverse effects, and these concerns apply to cognitive-enhancing drugs as well. Long-term safety data is typically unavailable for some types of nootropics[9] (e.g., many non-pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, newly developed pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals with short-term therapeutic use). Racetams—piracetam and other compounds that are structurally related to piracetam—have few serious adverse effects and low toxicity, but there is little evidence that they enhance cognition in individuals without cognitive impairments.[22][23] While addiction to stimulants is sometimes identified as a cause for concern,[24] a very large body of research on the therapeutic use of the “more addictive” psychostimulants indicate that addiction is fairly rare in therapeutic doses.[25][26][27] On their safety profile, a systematic review from June 2015 asserted, “evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers.”[28]

In the United States dietary supplements may be marketed if the manufacturer can show that it can manufacture the supplement safely, that the supplement is indeed generally recognized as safe, and if the manufacturer does not make any claims about the supplement’s use to treat or prevent any disease or condition; supplements that contain drugs or for which treatment or prevention claims are made are illegal under US law.”

Types of Nootropics (From Wikipedia):

Stimulants

Miscellaneous

  • l-Theanine – A 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis found that concurrent caffeine and l-theanine use has synergistic psychoactive effects that promote alertness, attention, and task switching;[43] these effects are most pronounced during the first hour post-dose.[43]
  • Tolcapone – a systematic review noted that it improves verbal episodic memory and episodic memory encoding.[44]
  • Levodopa – a systematic review noted that it improves verbal episodic memory and episodic memory encoding.[44]
  • Atomoxetine – can improve working memory and aspects of attention when used at an optimal dose.[33]

Dietary supplements

  • Bacopa monnieri – A herb sold as a dietary supplement. There is some preliminary evidence for memory-enhancing effects.[45]
  • Panax ginseng – A review by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that “there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of Panax ginseng in healthy participants and no high quality evidence about its efficacy in patients with dementia.”[46] According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health “Although Asian ginseng has been widely studied for a variety of uses, research results to date do not conclusively support health claims associated with the herb.”[47] According to a review published in the journal “Advances in Nutrition”, multiple RCTs in healthy volunteers have indicated increases in accuracy of memory, speed in performing attention tasks and improvement in performing difficult mental arithmetic tasks, as well as reduction in fatigue and improvement in mood.[48]
  • Ginkgo biloba – An extract of Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBE) is marketed in dietary supplement form with claims it can enhance cognitive function in people without known cognitive problems. Studies have failed to find such effects on memory or attention in healthy people.[49][50]

Racetams

Racetams, such as piracetam, oxiracetam, and aniracetam, are structurally similar compounds, which are often marketed as cognitive enhancers and sold over-the-counter. Racetams are often referred to as nootropics, but this property of the drug class is not well established.[51] The racetams have poorly understood mechanisms of action; however, piracetam and aniracetam are known to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors and appear to modulate cholinergic systems.[52]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, “Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake. Further, piracetam is not a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract or combination of any such dietary ingredient. […] Accordingly, these products are drugs, under section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. § 321(g)(1)(C), because they are not foods and they are intended to affect the structure or any function of the body. Moreover, these products are new drugs as defined by section 201(p) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. § 321(p), because they are not generally recognized as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in their labeling.”[53]

Null findings in systematic reviews

  • Omega-3 fatty acids: DHA and EPA – two Cochrane Collaboration reviews on the use of supplemental omega-3 fatty acids for ADHD and learning disorders conclude that there is limited evidence of treatment benefits for either disorder.[54][55] Two other systematic reviews noted no cognition-enhancing effects in the general population or middle-aged and older adults.[56][57]
  • B vitamins – no cognition-enhancing effects in middle-aged and older adults.[57]
  • Vitamin E – no cognition-enhancing effects in middle-aged and older adults.[57]
  • Pramipexole – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.[44]
  • Guanfacine – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.[44]
  • Clonidine – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.[44]
  • Ampakines – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.[44]
  • Fexofenadine – no significant cognition-enhancing effects in healthy individuals.[44]
  • Salvia officinalis – Although some evidence is suggestive of cognition benefits, the study quality is so poor that no conclusions can be drawn from it.[58]

Turmeric Supplement Testing — Curcumin Products

by NaturPro in Uncategorized Comments: 0

Laboratory testing of turmeric supplements and curcumin products is important for quality, safety, dosage and bioavailability. NaturPro Scientific offers testing and analysis consulting for turmeric, and works with expert research and quality control testing laboratories.

A number of analytical methods and monographs have been developed for turmeric to ensure bioavailability, consistency, potency and purity of curcumin products.


Turmeric Supplement Testing — Curcumin Products

We recommend all turmeric products have routine and/or periodic independent testing for the following parameters:

  1. Curcuminoids (curcumin) by HPLC
  2. Biological activity
  3. Bioavailability
  4. Heavy metals
  5. Microbiology and pathogens
  6. Residual solvents
  7. Pesticides
  8. Natural source by carbon radioisotope (if labeled as ‘turmeric’)
  9. Food allergens
  10. Sudan dyes

Traditional dosage forms listed by the EU Community Herbal Monograph include the following herbal preparations:

  1. Powdered herbal substance
  2. Comminuted herbal substance
  3. Tincture (Ratio of herbal substance to extraction solvent 1:10), extraction solvent ethanol 70% (v/v)
  4. Dry extract (DER 13-25:1), extraction solvent ethanol 96% (v/v)
  5. Dry extract (DER 5.5-6.5:1), extraction solvent ethanol 50% (v/v)
  6. Tincture (Ratio of herbal substance to extraction solvent 1:5), extraction solvent ethanol 70% (v/v)
    Other solvents are commonly used to extract curcuminoids.


The JECFA has developed a monograph on turmeric oleoresin:

“Obtained by solvent extraction of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Only the following solvents may be used in the extraction: acetone, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and light petroleum (hexanes).

The selection of a turmeric oleoresin of a particular composition is based on the intended use in food. In general, all turmeric oleoresins contain colouring matter and most contain flavouring matter but some oleoresins are processed to remove aromatic compounds. Commercial products include oleoresins (per se) and formulations in which oleoresin is diluted in carrier solvents and which may contain emulsifiers and antioxidants. Purified extracts of turmeric containing more than 90% total colouring matter are subject to specifications for “Curcumin”.

Turmeric Oleoresins are sold on the basis of “colour value” or “curcumin content”, which generally means the total content of the curcuminoid substances: (I) curcumin, (II) demethoxycurcumin and (III) bis- demethoxycurcumin.

The principle colouring components are:
I. 1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene- 3,5-dione
II. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene- 3,5-dione
III. 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione

Turmeric Oleoresins, per se, are deep brownish-orange viscous oily fluids, pasty semisolids or hard amorphous solids containing 37-55% curcuminoids and up to 25% volatile oil. Diluted turmeric oleoresin formulations are, generally yellow solutions containing 6-15% curcuminoids and nil to 10% volatile oil.

Residual solvents limits:

Acetone : Not more than 30 mg/kg
Methanol: Not more than 50 mg/kg
Ethanol: Not more than 50 mg/kg
Isopropanol: Not more than 50 mg/kg
Dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane: Not more than 30 mg/kg, singly or in combination

Light petroleum (hexanes): Not more than 25 mg/kg


The WHO monograph for medicinal plants for turmeric is excerpted below:

Rhizome (root) of Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric)

Definition

Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is the dried rhizome of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) (1).

Dried rhizomes of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Lee et C. Ling, C. kwangsiensis S. Lee et C.F. Liang. and C. phaeocaulis Val. are also official sources of Radix Curcumae or Turmeric Root-Tuber in China (2).

Synonyms

Curcuma domestica Valeton., C. rotunda L., C. xanthorrhiza Naves, Amomum curcuma Jacq. (3–5).

Selected vernacular names

Acafrao, arqussofar, asabi-e-safr, avea, cago rerega, chiang-huang, common tumeric, curcum, curcuma, dilau, dilaw, Gelbwurzel, gezo, goeratji, haladi, haldi, haldu, haku halu, hardi, haridra, huang chiang, hsanwen, hurid, Indian saffron, jiânghuang, kaha, kakoenji, kalo haledo, khamin chan, khaminchan, kilunga kuku, kitambwe, kiko eea, koening, koenit, koenjet, kondin, kooneit, kunyit, kurcum, kurkum, Kurkumawurzelstock, luyang dilaw, mandano, manjano, manjal, nghe, nisha, oendre, pasupu, rajani, rame, renga, rhizome de curcuma, saffran vert, safran, safran des indes, skyer-rtsa, tumeric, tumeric root, tumeric rhizome, turmeric, ukon, ul gum, wong keong, wong keung, yellow root, yii-chin, zardchob (13, 6–14).

Description

Perennial herb up to 1.0 m in height; stout, fleshy, main rhizome nearly ovoid (about 3 cm in diameter and 4 cm long). Lateral rhizome, slightly bent (1cm × 2–6cm), flesh orange in colour; large leaves lanceolate, uniformly green, up to 50cm long and 7–25cm wide; apex acute and caudate with tapering base, petiole and sheath sparsely to densely pubescent. Spike, apical, cylindrical, 10– 15cm long and 5–7 cm in diameter. Bract white or white with light green upper half, 5–6 cm long, each subtending flowers, bracteoles up to 3.5 cm long. Pale yellow flowers about 5cm long; calyx tubular, unilaterally split, unequally toothed; corolla white, tube funnel shaped, limb 3-lobed. Stamens lateral, petaloid, widely elliptical, longer than the anther; filament united to anther about the middle of the pollen sac, spurred at base. Ovary trilocular; style glabrous. Capsule ellipsoid. Rhizomes orange within (1, 4, 6, 15).

Plant material of interest: dried rhizome

General appearance

The primary rhizome is ovate, oblong or pear-shaped round turmeric, while the secondary rhizome is often short-branched long turmeric; the round form is about half as broad as long; the long form is from 2–5cm long and 1–1.8cm thick; externally yellowish to yellowish brown, with root scars and annulations, the latter from the scars of leaf bases; fracture horny; internally orangeyellow to orange; waxy, showing a cortex separated from a central cylinder by a distinct endodermis (1, 9, 13).

Organoleptic properties

Odour, aromatic; taste, warmly aromatic and bitter (1, 9, 13). Drug when chewed colours the saliva yellow (9).

Microscopic characteristics

The transverse section of the rhizome is characterized by the presence of mostly thin-walled rounded parenchyma cells, scattered vascular bundles, defi- nite endodermis, a few layers of cork developed under the epidermis and scattered oleoresin cells with brownish contents. The cells of the ground tissue are also filled with many starch grains. Epidermis is thin walled, consisting of cubical cells of various dimensions. The cork cambium is developed from the subepidermal layers and even after the development of the cork, the epidermis is retained. Cork is generally composed of 4–6 layers of thin-walled brickshaped parenchymatous cells. The parenchyma of the pith and cortex contains curcumin and is filled with starch grains. Cortical vascular bundles are scattered and are of collateral type. The vascular bundles in the pith region are mostly scattered and they form discontinuous rings just under the endodermis. The vessels have mainly spiral thickening and only a few have reticulate and annular structure (1, 8, 9).

Powdered plant material

Coloured deep yellow. Fragments of parenchymatous cells contain numerous altered, pasty masses of starch grains coloured yellow by curcumin, fragments of vessels; cork fragments of cells in sectional view; scattered unicellular trichomes; abundant starch grains; fragments of epidermal and cork cells in surface view; and scattered oil droplets, rarely seen (1, 13).

Geographical distribution

Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Viet Nam (1, 13, 16). It is exten- sively cultivated in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and throughout the tropics, including tropical regions of Africa (1, 7, 13, 16).

General identity tests

Macroscopic and microscopic examinations; test for the presence of curcuminoids by colorimetric and thin-layer chromatographic methods (1).

Purity tests

Microbiology

The test for Salmonella spp. in Rhizoma Curcumae Longae products should be negative. The maximum acceptable limits of other microorganisms are as follows (17–19). For preparation of decoction: aerobic bacteria-not more than 107/g; fungi-not more than 105/g; Escherichia coli-not more than 102/g. Preparations for internal use: aerobic bacteria-not more than 105/g or ml; fungi-not more than 104/g or ml; enterobacteria and certain Gram-negative bacteria-not more than 103/g or ml; Escherichia coli-0/g or ml.

Foreign organic matter

Not more than 2% (1, 9).

Total ash

Not more than 8.0% (1, 15).

Acid-insoluble ash

Not more than 1% (1, 9, 15).

Water-soluble extractive

Not less than 9.0% (1).

Alcohol-soluble extractive

Not less than 10% (1).

Moisture

Not more than 10% (1).

Pesticide residues

To be established in accordance with national requirements. Normally, the maximum residue limit of aldrin and dieldrin in Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is not more than 0.05 mg/kg (19). For other pesticides, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (17) and guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues (20).

Heavy metals

Recommended lead and cadmium levels are not more than 10 and 0.3mg/kg, respectively, in the final dosage form of the plant material (17).

Radioactive residues

For analysis of strontium-90, iodine-131, caesium-134, caesium-137, and plutonium-239, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (17).

Other purity tests

Chemical tests to be established in accordance with national requirements.

Chemical assays

Not less than 4.0% of volatile oil, and not less than 3.0% of curcuminoids (1). Qualitative analysis by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography (1, 21) and quantitative assay for total curcuminoids by spectrophotometric (1, 22) or by high-performance liquid chromatographic methods (23, 24).

Major chemical constituents

Pale yellow to orange-yellow volatile oil (6%) composed of a number of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including zingiberene, curcumene, α- and β- turmerone among others. The colouring principles (5%) are curcuminoids, 50–60% of which are a mixture of curcumin, monodesmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin (1, 6, 25). Representative structures of curcuminoids are presented below.

Dosage forms

Powdered crude plant material, rhizomes (1, 2), and corresponding preparations (25). Store in a dry environment protected from light. Air dry the crude drug every 2–3 months (1).

Medicinal uses

Uses supported by clinical data

The principal use of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is for the treatment of acid, flatulent, or atonic dyspepsia (26–28).

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine

Treatment of peptic ulcers, and pain and inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis (2, 11, 14, 29, 30) and of amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, diarrhoea, epilepsy, pain, and skin diseases (2, 3, 16).

Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data

The treatment of asthma, boils, bruises, coughs, dizziness, epilepsy, haemorrhages, insect bites, jaundice, ringworm, urinary calculi, and slow lactation (3, 7, 8–10, 14).

 

 

 

Echinacea Supplement Testing — Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia

by NaturPro in Uncategorized Comments: 0

Echinacea Supplement Testing — Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia

Echinacea testing is critical to determining the quality, identity and potency of an echinacea material. NaturPro Scientific offers testing consulting for echinacea supplements.

Echinacea analysis and testing is based mainly on the WHO  monograph on Echinacea that is excerpted in part below, and the USP monograph.

 

Herba Echinaceae Purpureae

Definition

Herba Echinaceae Purpureae consists of the fresh or dried aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench harvested in full bloom (Asteraceae) (1).

Synonyms

Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britt., Echinacea intermedia Lindl., E. purpurea (L.) Moench f., E. purpurea (L.) Moench var. arkansana Steyerm., E. speciosa Paxt., Rudbeckia purpurea L., R. hispida Hoffm., R. serotina Sweet (2, 3).

Asteraceae are also known as Compositae.

Selected vernacular names

Coneflower, purple coneflower herb, purpurfarbener Igelkopf, purpurfarbene Kegelblume, purpurfarbener Sonnenhut, red sunflower, roter Sonnenhut (48).

Description

A hardy, herbaceous perennial. Stems erect, stout, branched, hirsute or glabrous, 60–180 cm high; basal leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, coarsely or sharply serrate, petioles up to 25 cm long, blades to 20 cm long and 15cm wide, blade abruptly narrowing to base, often cordate, decurrent on petiole, 3–5 veined; cauline leaves petiolate below, sessile above, 7–20 cm long, 1.5–8cm broad, coarsely serrate to entire, rough to the touch on both surfaces; phyllaries linear-lanceolate, attenuate, entire, pubescent on outer surface, ciliate, passing into the chaff; heads 1.5–3cm long and 5–10mm broad, purplish; pales 9– 13mm long, awn half as long as body; disc corollas 4.5–5.5mm long, lobes 1mm long; achene 4–4.5 mm long, pappus a low crown of equal teeth; pollen grains yellow, 19–21µm in diameter; haploid chromosome number n = 11 (2).

Plant material of interest: fresh or dried aerial parts

General appearance

The macroscopic characteristics of Herba Echinaceae Purpureae are as described above under Description. An abbreviated description is currently unavailable.

Organoleptic properties

Mild, aromatic odour; initially sweet taste that quickly becomes bitter.

Microscopic characteristics

A description of the microscopic characteristics of a cross-section of the aerial parts of the plant is currently unavailable.

Powdered plant material

A description of the powdered plant material is currently unavailable.

Geographical distribution

Echinacea purpurea is native to the Atlantic drainage area of the United States of America and Canada, but not Mexico. Its distribution centres are in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma in the United States of America (2). Echinacea purpurea has been introduced as a cultivated medicinal plant in parts of north and eastern Africa and in Europe (9).

General identity tests

Macroscopic examination (2) and thin-layer chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography (4, 10–13) of the lipophilic constituents and chicoric acid in methanol extracts.

Purity tests

Microbiology

The test for Salmonella spp. in Herba Echinaceae Purpureae should be negative. The maximum acceptable limits of other microorganisms are as follows (1416). For preparation of decoction: aerobic bacteria-not more than 107/g; fungi-not more than 105/g; Escherichia coli-not more than 102/g. Preparations for internal use: aerobic bacteria-not more than 105/g or ml; fungi-not more than 104/g or ml; enterobacteria and certain Gram-negative bacteria-not more than 103/g or ml; Escherichia coli-0/g or ml. Preparations for external use: aerobic bacteria-not more than 102/g or ml; fungi-not more than 102/g or ml; enterobacteria and certain Gram-negative bacteria-not more than 101/g or ml.

Pesticide residues

To be established in accordance with national requirements. Normally, the maximum residue limit of aldrin and dieldrin in Herba Echinaceae Purpureae is not more than 0.05 mg/kg (16). For other pesticides, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (14) and guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues (17).

Heavy metals

Recommended lead and cadmium levels are no more than 10 and 0.3mg/kg, respectively, in the final dosage form of the plant material (14).

Radioactive residues

For analysis of strontium-90, iodine-131, caesium-134, caesium-137, and plutonium-239, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (14).

Other purity tests

Chemical tests and tests for acid-insoluble ash, dilute ethanol-soluble extractive, foreign organic matter, moisture, total ash, and water-soluble extractive to be established in accordance with national requirements.

Chemical assays

For essential oil (0.08–0.32%); chicoric acid (1.2–3.1%) (4). Quantitative analysis of echinacoside, chicoric acid, isobutylamides, and other constituents by high-performance liquid chromatography (4). Quantitative analysis of alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives by thin-layer chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography (4, 12).

Major chemical constituents

A number of chemical entities have been identified, including alkamides, polyalkenes, polyalkynes, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharides (3, 5–9).

The volatile oil contains, among other compounds, borneol, bornyl acetate, pentadeca-8-(Z)-en-2-one, germacrene D, caryophyllene, and caryophyllene epoxide.

Isobutylamides of C11–C16 straight-chain fatty acids with olefinic or acetylenic bonds (or both) are found in the aerial parts of Herba Echinaceae Purpureae, with the isomeric dodeca-(2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides.

The caffeic acid ester derivative chicoric acid is the major active compound of this class found in the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea, with a concentration range of 1.2–3.1%. Chicoric acid methyl ester and other derivatives are also present.

Polysaccharide constituents from Herba Echinaceae Purpureae are of two types: a heteroxylan of average relative molecular mass about 35 000 (e.g. PS-I), and an arabinorhamnogalactan of average relative molecular mass about 45000 (e.g. PS-II).

Other constituents include trace amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (tussilagine (0.006%) and isotussilagine). At these concentrations, the alkaloids are considered to be non-toxic (8). Furthermore, because these alkaloids lack the 1,2-unsaturated necine ring of alkaloids such as senecionine (structure in box) from Senecio species, they are considered to be non-hepatotoxic (3).

Dosage forms

Powdered aerial part, pressed juice and galenic preparations thereof for internal and external use (1, 3).

Medicinal uses

Uses supported by clinical data

Herba Echinaceae Purpureae is administered orally in supportive therapy for colds and infections of the respiratory and urinary tract (1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 18). Beneficial effects in the treatment of these infections are generally thought to be brought about by stimulation of the immune response (3, 5, 7). External uses include promotion of wound healing and treatment of inflammatory skin conditions (1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 19).

Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine

None.

Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data

Other medical uses claimed for Herba Echinaceae Purpureae include treatment of yeast infections, side-effects of radiation therapy, rheumatoid arthritis, blood poisoning, and food poisoning (1, 5, 7, 9).


The following summarizes some current methods for identifying  from a published review on echinacea:

“Alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharides have been considered important constituents of the plant. A number of studies revealed that alkamides are involved in the immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea extracts in vitroand in vivo.[4,5] Additionally, caffeic acid is found in some species of Echinacea and could be applied toward authentication and quality control of the plant extracts. The polysaccharides play an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of Echinacea preparations.[6] Taxonomic, chemical, pharmacological, and clinical characteristics of some species of the Echinacea genus including E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea were reviewed in previous papers.[1,7] Medicinal properties of the plant were also considered in a review paper, which suggested that more research is required for more definitive medicinal recommendations.[8] This paper is a review about E. purpurea: Its phytochemical contents and its pharmacological and biological activities, along with common methods of plant extract analysis. In addition, the psychoactive and mosquitocidal effects of the plant are mentioned in this paper….

Alkamides have been analyzed with reverse-phase HPLC coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric.[83,84] Furthermore, caffeic acid derivatives have been determined using reverse-phase HPLC or capillary electrophoresis (CE) with photodiode array (FDA) UV spectrophotometric detection.[85,86,87] Phenolic acids were analyzed by micellar benzoic acid electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), both charged and uncharged analytes, based on the use of sodium deoxycholate (SDC), a surfactant in borate buffer (pH 9.2), as well as in the E. purpurea extract.[88] However, determination methods for both caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides have been developed in single analysis. Although it is a difficult process to separate these diverse constituents in one analysis, methods for the concurrent determination of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides have the advantages of reduced time and sample size needed for the analysis.[85] Gradient elution on reverse-phase HPLC has been employed for concurrent analysis of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides from E. purpurea using various detectors such as FDA UV spectrophotometric and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EIMS).[79,85] Simultaneous analysis of both mentioned derivatives has also been performed by electrophoresis with FDA UV spectrophotometric detector, together with sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in Britton Robinson buffer (10 mM, pH 8.0).[89]”

Source: Pharmacogn Rev. 2015 Jan-Jun; 9(17): 63–72 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441164/)


Herb Listing: Passiflora edulis (Passionflower) flower, seed or vine

by NaturPro in GHC Comments: 0

 

This is a listing page for Passionflower (Passiflora) products available directly from producers:

 

Location: Karnataka, India

Harvest Season: depends on plant part

Acres: 50

Certifications:
Good Agricultural Practices
Uses Organic Practices
Non-GMO

Farmer name: Sushil G.R.

Family Operated: Yes
Years in Operation at site: 50+

Asking price:

Flower: 300 INR/kg (shade-dried on-site)
Vine (stem): 65 INR/kg (cut and shade dried)
Seed: Inquire

Purchase Material: E-Commerce In Progress

Shipping: FOB Bangalore

Product Listing #: 389174

 

Passion Flower in Kerala, India:

 

 

Traditional use of Passionflower (Passiflora) (Wikipedia):

Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the type genus of the family Passifloraceae.

They are mostly vines, with some being shrubs, and a few species being herbaceous. For information about the fruit of the passiflora plant, see passionfruit. The monotypic genus Hollrungia seems to be inseparable from Passiflora, but further study is needed…..

P. incarnata (maypop) leaves and roots have a long history of use among Native Americans in North America and were adapted by the European colonists. The fresh or dried leaves of maypop are used to make a tea that is used for insomnia, hysteria, and epilepsy, and is also valued for its analgesic properties.[12][medical citation needed] P. edulis (passion fruit) and a few other species are used in Central and South America for similar purposes. Once dried, the leaves can also be smoked.

The medical utility of only a few species of Passiflora has been scientifically studied.[13] In initial study in 2001 for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, maypop extract performed as well as oxazepam but with fewer short-term side effects.[14] It was recommended to follow up with long-term studies to confirm these results.

A study performed on mice demonstrated that Passiflora alata has a genotoxic effect on cells, and suggested further research was recommended before this one species is considered safe for human consumption.[15]

Passionflower herb (Passiflorae herba) from P. incarnata is listed in the European Pharmacopoeia. The herbal drug should contain not less than 1.5% total flavonoids expressed asvitexin.[citation needed]

Passionflower is reputed to have sedative effects and has been used in sedative products in Europe, but in 1978, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration prohibited its use in over-the-counter sedative preparations because it had not been proven safe and effective. In 2011, the University of Maryland Medical Center reported that passionflower “… can trigger side effects and can interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, you should take herbs with care, under the supervision of a health care provider.”[16][17]

Passionflower is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods in the US,[18] and is “possibly safe when used orally and appropriately for short-term medicinal purposes,” “possibly unsafe when used in excessive amounts,” but unsafe when used orally during pregnancy since “…passionflower constituents show evidence of uterine stimulation.” The database suggests it is possibly effective for adjustment disorder with anxious mood, anxiety, and opiate withdrawal, but it “can cause dizziness, confusion, sedation, and ataxia” and there are some reports of more severe side effects including vasculitis and altered consciousness.

Article: Regulatory Compliance Systems for Supplements

by NaturPro in Quality Comments: 0

In the U.S., dietary supplements and their ingredients are subject to a patchwork of regulations, industry guidances, voluntary certifications, and audit programs.  With some exceptions, few of our standards have been developed with expert consensus and then broadly implemented by industry. FDA’s dietary supplement Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are part of the exception, and have made today’s supplement products generally a higher level of quality than at any time before.

Yet few industry standards are clearly understood, consistently applied, and sufficiently comprehensive to cover all the ground.  One primary example lies in the gap between compliance requirements for dietary ingredients (under food GMP) and dietary supplements, whose GMP framework is derived from that for pharmaceuticals. The underlying litmus test for the level of safety demanded for supplements and foods are different – that of ‘non-adulteration’ versus ‘safe for human consumption’.  Maybe due to the differences, supplement GMP audit programs often tend to overlook the food GMP that governs ingredients. So it is not uncommon for a manufacturer and a supplier to speak completely different quality languages. Audits for supplement GMP are frequently unable to determine to a reasonable degree of certainty whether a particular ingredient, based on its COA, should be expected to meet supplement requirements once it is placed inside a capsule or tablet.

As could be expected, an unintended consequence of this gap is the common practice of a raw material certificate of analysis being simply duplicated as the manufacturer’s raw material specification.  In this scenario, an ingredient specification has been developed according to food requirements, and often without any further analysis or verification, is assumed to meet the requirements of the finished supplement. The end result is a supplement that is essentially of no better quality than the “food-grade” ingredients put into it.

For botanicals and animal-derived raw materials, there is the added dimension of cultivation and processing before they are made into usable ingredients. This is a complicated problem, particularly for a global supply chain of agricultural materials that may or may not pick up contaminants during farming, harvesting, processing, storage or transportation to the ingredient processing facility. These contaminants may not be necessarily listed on the specification or controlled by the food GMP, yet can cause the supplements to which they are added to be adulterated.

Then there are the dozens of standards written for agricultural products, many of which don’t (or can’t) apply to the small family farmer that are a predominant source of botanical raw materials. In addition to recent FSMA requirements for fresh produce (which don’t really apply to dried agricultural materials), we also have USDA Good Agricultural Practices (which are intended for large farms and seldom fully practiced in the U.S.);  NOP Organic (which requires no testing for contaminants like pesticides that may cause a product to be adulterated); independent farm standards  like Global G.A.P. (also intended for large, modernized industrial farms); and dozens of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for medicinal plants that have been independently written by various nations and trade groups.

There are those who say that the mess of standards, the dynamics of industry, and the law of entropy do not support the possibility of a clear and unified regulatory structure.  Yet there are many others who recognize the limitations, yet remain busy sewing the patches together into a quilt that is greater than the sum of its parts.

Fortunately, a number of initiatives are in process or recently completed that contribute to the integrity of our industry quilt, and have provided a lot of free information.  Just in the past couple years:

  • The U.S. Pharmacopoeia and American Herbal Pharmacopoeia have developed a number of monographs and methods for testing dietary supplement ingredients.
  • USP has also developed a Food Fraud Mitigation Database that lists adulterants common for food ingredients
  • AOAC International has developed a number of analytical methods for dietary supplement ingredient potency and contaminants.
  • The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements website has become a valuable source of information and resources.
  • Trade groups like the American Herbal Products Association and American Botanical Council have made enormous efforts to educate and guide the industry on issues around botanical dietary ingredients and adulteration, including a recently updated draft GACP from AHPA, and the ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program.
  • The Supplement Online Wellness Library (or OWL) was established by the Council for Responsible Nutrition, to allow labels for supplement products on the U.S. market to be put into in one place.
  • The Supplement Safety and Compliance Initiative (SSCI) was formed as a broad industry initiative, with wide support from the trade associations, to address some of the gaps for supplements that aren’t sufficiently covered under other standards.  SSCI is led by a number of experienced players in retail, manufacturing and supply, and includes a focus on identity, risk assessment and quality for raw materials.
  • In response to consumer demand, a number of leading retailers, manufacturers and ingredient suppliers have invested significant resources into traceability and quality, and are now able to make meaningful claims to these effects that are not only important to consumers, but also serve as a reliable way to differentiate from the competition.

Today’s movement towards a greater level of education and transparency includes a firming of the gaps, especially where raw material traceability and quality are concerned. Successful companies across the entire supply chain are actively improving and adopting new standards as they come along, building a level of quality and integrity that provides lasting value to their business.  Those who are upping their game are piecing together a quilt of their own, leveraging their quality advantages into claims that deliver marketing value. On the other side, those who continue to rely on ignorance or a lack of regulatory clarity as reason to take no action are increasingly left behind.

In an industry where faceless online product marketers are more common than they should be, and where a list of the tens of thousands of products on the market is just getting kicked off, efforts to fill in the gaps of our patchwork are probably a good thing for everyone.

First published in Natural Products Insider

Natural Product Formulation and Development


Formulating a health product, whether dietary supplement or food, is a lot more than just picturing a combination of ingredients that go well together.

NaturPro can manage all or parts of the process for natural product formulation and development — from seed to shelf — for dietary supplement and health food products.

 Top 10 Product Development Tools:  Product development requires a ‘toolbox’ of analysis including the following

  1. Financial (costing, budgets, pricing, inventory requirements, profitability)
  2. Regulatory status and safety assessment
  3. Market analysis, positioning & competitive forces.
  4. Ingredient Readiness, supplier verification, availability, quality and cost
  5. GMP’s, specifications, and analytical testing
  6. Clinical substantiation and claims
  7. Intellectual property development and freedom to operate
  8. Distribution channel & sales
  9. Manufacturability and shelf stability
  10. Contract manufacturer advocacy: qualification, negotiation and management

 

 

Food and Supplement Claims with Confidence


Labeling laws and truthful claims are not just critical for protecting the consumer, and they also ensure a level playing field for participants. Even during times of stalled regulatory clarity and enforcement, there is still the ‘golden rule’: do unto others by ensuring product labels are truthful and not misleading.

As we know in this era of alternative facts, it’s easy to make a claim, but harder to verify it with facts and science. (Go science.) But science has a problem. Even when fully developed, it rarely provides the full 100% confidence that may be required to change beliefs and opinions. (Boo, science.)

First example: identity claims. Many are aware that the identity of dietary ingredients need to be stated on the product label, and the specification. What is often missed is that verification through analytical tests to confirm identity are required on every batch of dietary ingredients – a minimum requirement under GMP.

Unfortunately, many identity methods miss the mark for validity and fitness for purpose – also a minimum requirement under GMP which tends to be overlooked. But if an ID method does not detect the presence or absence of common adulterants for a particular material, then how is it meeting the minimum requirement? How is it considered suitable for its purpose? In most cases, more work is needed: an adulterants review, developing and adopting multiple methods that determine a material’s identity, and adequate supplier qualification are all keys to providing a more reliable assurance of identity. The ‘totality’ approach to assuring identity is especially helpful when non-specific or indirect measures are used, like those based on infrared spectroscopy or thin layer chromatography.

Health claims also require scientific evidence. (Go science.) Here the standards are more clear, but not without some confusion. It is pretty clear that the U.S. scientific establishment plus judge and jury has decided that animal data, anecdotes and traditional use are not scientific, and therefore are not sufficient evidence to support a health claim. Past that, there’s some gaps in minimum requirements, and ask ten experts to get ten opinions (One or two studies? Published or not?). But most agree that well-designed human studies, with differences in treatment versus control groups different to more than a 95% confidence limit (known as p<0.05) are the path to health claims substantiation. This arbitrary statistical cutoff can be criticized, too, because when p=0.051 (a confidence of 94.9%), a product is deemed no more effective than placebo. The difference is the line between effective supplement and worthless snake oil. This confuses even most scientists, but it does set a pass/fail that can be evenly applied.

Science is becoming increasingly useful in the verification of content claims. Now that analytical tools can quantify at picomolar concentrations, almost down to the molecule, content claims can be powerful and truthful if investments are made in developing and verifying them. On the other hand, content claims are increasingly policed by consumer groups and class action attorneys, so a failure to verify content claims can be painful. In one recent example, the kombucha tea industry has been hit hard by a series of settlements involving mislabeling of alcohol, sugar and antioxidant content, and exploding bottles. Debate over which test methods were suitable for ethanol (one of the most frequently analyzed substances) led to an industry-wide effort to validate a method specific for kombucha. The validation in kombucha compositions was the last step required in order to rule out the slim possibility that kombucha contained unique matrix interferences that could make it difficult to measure with reliability. As a participant in the project, validation results from our partner laboratories showed a GC-FID method commonly used for ethanol in foods and beverages was indeed fit for purpose. After approval by the AOAC scientific expert review panel, the method is now becoming adopted by the kombucha industry as a standard method.

While not all methods require this kind of validation, the process is the key part to pay attention to. First you need to verify the test method. Then you verify the product against the claim you want to use, with the verified test method. Then you can put the claim on your label. In that order.

Here’s another catch about claims: your evidence is only so good as it verifies the claim. Picture an ingredient made on the same manufacturing line as a common allergen. Is a test report and supplier checklist from last year sufficient on its own to prove that a new shipment you just received is allergen-free? Maybe, maybe not. The best test method in the world will not make up for a lack in understanding whether you should reasonably expect the same results with the new lot as you did before. Verification is not just about testing.

Regardless, for those who are interested in verifying label claims, hopefully we can all agree that there should be rules, and the same rules should apply to everyone. What should also be agreed is that whether claims are truthful and misleading should be based on science and facts, not beliefs and opinions. Go, science!

 

By: Blake Ebersole

Published in Natural Products Insider, 2017

 

Historical Food and Supplement Adulterant List


Historical Food and Supplement Adulterant List

Adulteration of food and agricultural materials has a long history. Below is a list in-progress of references citing adulteration of food and dietary ingredients in recent times (publications in the past ~30 years).  The intent of this list to promote awareness for historical adulterants in natural products. NOTE: This list is for comprehensive and historical reference only.

Access Historical Food and Supplement Adulterant List